Operation Tannenbaum: Hitler’s Invasion of Switzerland

General note: all maps and diagrams of the various invasion and defense plans courtesy of Tannenbaum 40.

[1] Gerhard L. Weinberg, A World At Arms: A Global History of World War II, 2nd Edition (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005) 174.

[2] Joachim Fest, Hitler (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1974) 756.

[3] Stephen P. Halbrook, Target Switzerland: Swiss Armed Neutrality in World War II (Rockville Centre, N.Y.: Sarpedon, 1998) 32-33.

[4]Halbrook, Target Switzerland 29-30, 36.

[5] Halbrook, Target Switzerland 42.

[6] Angelo Codevilla, Between the Alps and a Hard Place: Switzerland in World War II and Moral Blackmail Today (Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 2000) 64-65.

[7] Raffael Scheck, “Swiss Funding for the Early Nazi Movement: Motivation, Context, and Continuities,” The Journal of Modern History 71.4 (December 1999) 793-794; Fest, Hitler 167.

[8] Scheck 797-799.

[9] Halbrook, Target Switzerland 58-59.

[10] Halbrook, Target Switzerland 42-43.

[11] Schweizer Bundesversammlung, Resultate der Wahlen des Bundesrats, der Bundeskanzler, und des Generals Seite (Bern: Schweizer Bundesversammlungsdienst, n.d.) 66.

[12] “Operationsbefehl Nr. 1,” September 3, 1939, Tagesbefehle des Generals, 1939-1945 (Bern: Eidg. Militärbibliothek, n.d.).

[13] Jonathan Steinberg, Why Switzerland? (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1996) 66; Halbrook, Target Switzerland 84-85.

[14] Halbrook, Target Switzerland 85.

[15] Ernest May, Strange Victory: Hitler’s Conquest of France (New York: Hill and Wang, 2000) 477.

[16] Alan Shepperd, France 1940: Blitzkrieg in the West (London: Osprey, 1990) 88.

[17] “Operationsbefehl Nr. 10,” June 20, 1940, Tagesbefehle des Generals; Halbrook, Target Switzerland 119-123.

[18] Halbrook, Target Switzerland 124.

[1]Steinberg 68.

[2] Weinberg, A World at Arms 174.

[3] Klaus Urner, “Let’s Swallow Switzerland“: Hitler’s Plans against the Swiss Confederation (Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 2001) 5; Halbrook, Target Switzerland 118.

[4] Andreas Herren, “First Set of Plans (HGr C) – 26. June 1940,”Tannenbaum 1940.

[5] Urner 67.

[6] Halbrook, Target Switzerland 118.

[7] Steinberg 66-67; Halbrook, Target Switzerland 127.

[8] Halbrook, Target Switzerland 130-131.

[9] Steinberg 67; Stephen P. Halbrook, The Swiss and the Nazis: How the Alpine Republic Survived in the Shadow of the Third Reich (Philadelphia: Casemate, 2006) 118.

[10] Halbrook, Target Switzerland 111.

[11] Herren, “Second Set of Plans (HGr C) – 12. August 1940,”Tannenbaum 1940.

[12] Urner 68.

[13] Halbrook, Target Switzerland 121.

[14] “Operationsbefehl Nr. 11,” July 12, 1940, Tagesbefehle des Generals.

[15] J.E. Kaufmann and Robert M. Jurga, Fortress Europe: European Fortifications of World War II (Cambridge, Mass: Da Capo, 2000) 151-152.

[16] “Operationsbefehl Nr. 12,” July 17, 1940, Tagesbefehle des Generals.

[17] Herren, “Operationsbefehl Nr. 12 ‘Central Redoubt/Réduit,’” Tannenbaum 1940.

[18] Herren, “Operationsbefehl Nr. 12,’” Tannenbaum 1940.

[19] Codevilla 63; Rudolf Jaun, “The Military National Defense, 1939-45,” Switzerland and the Second World War, Georg Kreis, ed. (Portland, Ore: Frank Cass, 2000) 202-203.

[20] Kaufmann and Jurga 156-158.

[21] Halbrook, Target Switzerland 133 ; Urner 69.

[22] Herren, “Third Set of Plans (HGr C) – 28. August/6. September 1940,” Tannenbaum 1940.

[23] Codevilla 57-58; Halbrook, Target Switzerland 136-137, 141.

[24] Gerhard L. Weinberg, “German Plans and Policies Regarding Neutral Nations in World War II with Special Reference to Switzerland,” German Studies Review 22.1 (February 1999) 101-102.

[25] Steinberg 68.

[26] Urner 8.

[27] Efraim Kersh, Neutrality and Small States: The European Experience in World War Two and Beyond (New York: Routledge, 1988) 65-66.

[1] Richard Overy, Why the Allies Won (New York: W.W. Norton, 1997) 104.

[2] See Orson Welles’ famous line in The Third Man: “In Italy, for thirty years under the Borgias, they had warfare, terror, murder, and bloodshed, but they produced Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, and the Renaissance. In Switzerland, they had brotherly love, they had five hundred years of democracy and peace – and what did they produce? The cuckoo clock.” Of course, the Swiss did not invent the cuckoo clock – the Germans did.

[3] Urner 88-90.

[4] Herren, “The Timeline 10.5.1940 – 30.11.1940,” Tannenbaum 1940; Halbrook, Target Switzerland 108.

[5] “We are not one people, but many. We are not one Reich, but many states. We have no Führer – we have all men. We are now the defenders of freedom in Europe and the world. We willnever surrender!”

[6] Kaufmann and Jurga 157.

[7] “The Swiss can keep their damn mountain.”

[1] Halbrook, Target Switzerland 67.

[2] Halbrook, Target Switzerland 149.

4 thoughts on “Operation Tannenbaum: Hitler’s Invasion of Switzerland

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